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Whether Mazar’s staff is appropriate or not (Bruins, van der Plicht, and Mazar 2003b; Finkelstein and Piasetzky 2003; and on this volume, see Mazar et al. In lots of respects, the bar has been raised for Iron Age archaeology by the recent publication by A. Mazar’s group (Bruins, van der Plicht, and Mazar 2003a) of the radiocarbon dating challenge of Iron Age levels at Tel Rehov in the journal Science, which makes an attempt to document evidence for the destruction of Iron Age towns in Palestine by the Egyptian pharaoh Shoshenq/Shishak I throughout the Iron IIA interval. C date from Tell el-Qudeirat that might fit the Shishak campaign is the destruction layer related to the Middle Fortress, which also had a stable wall. Cohen (1986, 1993b) dated the fortress and its destruction to the tenth century BCE. It was proven from the Higher Fortress at Tell el-Qudeirat that the difference between charred seeds and tremendous charcoal may be fairly small, that is, only 20 BP years!

Indeed, the oldest date obtained up to now, from the agricultural soil layer at the location of Horvat Haluqim, backs the above picture. Various buildings at the site. The structure, in situ excavations of copper industrial stays and imports confirm two main phases of production in the 12-eleventh centuries BCE and 10-9th centuries BCE at Khirbat en-Nahas. Nahal Ha’Elah (2840 ± 15 BP, GrN-15552) are fairly similar to 3 dates (2880 ± 28, HD-14302; 2876 ± 38, HD-14308; 2864 ± 46, HD-14113) from the Slag Mound West (Hauptmann 2000) and to Stratum A4a in Gate 2002 of the Khirbat en-Nahas Area A (2825 ± 32, OxA-12365). However, the ‘C dates from Khirbat en-Nahas give evidence of Iron Age occupation already in the early Iron Age (ca. 1200-a thousand BCE) and likewise in the 10th-ninth centuries BCE. Large trees of an previous age tend to provide chunks of recognizable woody charcoal, equivalent to found typically at Tel Dan. Burning of such vegetation would give short-lived powdery charcoal similar in age to seeds.

Annual vegetation growing after the winter rains withers in the spring. Desert shrubs are older than annual plants. The 51’C worth of -17.75 %o is larger than for wooden (usually around -25%o), which signifies that the charcoal is extra likely derived from brief-lived shrubs, annual plants or animal dung. Despite disagreements concerning chronology, we acknowledge the nice worth of the massive quantity of fieldwork and excavations conducted within the area by Dr Cohen and his colleagues, together with Dr Haiman. While so-known as Biblical minimalist scholars (Davies 1992; Thompson 1999; Van Seters 1997; Whitelam 1996) argue that the Hebrew Bible is pure fable missing proof of historicity, it’s precisely in these ‘footnotes’ in the Hebrew Bible, which haven’t any propaganda value or theological message, that some elements of history could also be discovered. While lack of area prevents an in depth discussion right here, the fact that Edom is talked about no lower than 99 occasions in the Hebrew Bible justifies a re-examination of some historical points in relation to the new archaeological excavations in the lowland region to ascertain some working hypotheses for the Iron Age history of Edom. Pichai testified on a variety of points including extremism akin to those who rioted at the U.S.